The Development of critical thinking in children.
Early childhood — a very short span in the life of a person. But during this time the child acquires significantly more than for the rest of his life. Many psychologists and educators believe that the most important is the age from birth to three years.
Famous Japanese specialist on early development Masaru Ibuka in his book “After three late” tells the story of how early life experiences affect the future destiny of man. The fastest leapfrog development occurs just at this time. But after three years the child continues to learn about the world. So the fact remains — all children of preschool age are unusually sensitive to all kinds of influences. If we do not notice the results of some impacts, this does not suggests that they are not. Preschoolers are ready to chat, learn new skills, develop existing abilities. The task of parents — to put them on the right path.
Visual-figurative thinking begins to emerge in children at the age of one and a half years and finally formed to five years. Using such thinking, the child is able to solve different tasks with real objects. This means that a child aged four to five years do not need to see the object or to take it in hand to answer a question about it. The child may simply represent the subject. The possibility of solving problems arises in the mind due to the fact that the images that your child uses, buy generic. That is, they appear not all the features of the subject, but only those that are relevant to a specific task or answer the question. In the mind of the child is already experiencing the schematic model, it is able to summarize and analyze the information it receives from the outside world. So, it’s time to help him develop critical thinking.
But why is it so important to develop not just “thinking”, “critical thinking” in children?
To answer this question, we need to define what critical thinking means. In modern psychology considers several interpretations of this concept, but the General meaning is as follows.
Critical thinking is a complex mental process that begins with obtaining child information and ends with making a conscious decision, forming their own relationship. It’s the ability to put new questions, develop arguments in defense of their opinions and draw conclusions. It is the ability not only to interpret and analyse information. Critically thinking child will always be able to convincingly prove their position. It will rely on logic and the opinion of the interlocutor, and thus be able to explain why he agrees or disagrees.
Too difficult for a preschooler?
Not at all. It only seems difficult in theory, but in practice parents can every day to see manifestations of critical thinking in the child. Eternal child the question “why?” — the most striking example of a developing critical thinking. Kids always want to know the causes of human actions, natural phenomena, events, witnesses. Of course, sometimes the game in the “pochemuchka” — it’s just a way to attract the attention of parents. From this behavior, parents should make the appropriate conclusions. This means that the child sends a signal “I miss you”. Such signals better not to miss and solve the problem in time. If a child driven by curiosity, and in this case, you can’t just shrug off his questions. Ignoring them, easily beat the interest in learning. It is important to heed the desire of the child to know everything about everything.
And help them to objectively assess the facts, to draw conclusions from the information received and only then to form their attitude towards it.
There is another example. Children often do not agree with their parents or with other children. In these situations, parents will be useful to ask the child the question “why?”. If the child can justify his position, so he asks himself the question “why do I think so?”. This indicates a fairly high level of critical thinking development. If a child does not understand why he did this or that conclusion, doesn’t know how to prove their case, parents should help him develop critical thinking. Preschool children are learning easily and lend themselves to almost any impact. And so parents should always strive to find a way to influence their preschool child.
And if you do not develop critical thinking?
Only recently, many educators began to Express concerns about weak development of critical thinking in preschool children. Before there was such a stereotype: the obedient child does not argue with the older. In many families this stereotype is alive to this day: “don’t argue. Don’t ask unnecessary questions. Just do what you’re told”. These principles are already very poor agreement with modern reality. There is nothing wrong with respecting your elders, polite communication with loved ones. On the contrary, it is a wonderful tradition that we must keep it in the family.
But when the child has no desire to know the truth — that’s bad.
Such children it is very difficult to adjust to the demands of the majority of new curricula, since critical thinking is becoming a more important part of each of them. Even younger students the requirements are high. To be successful in first grade it is not enough just to be able to read, write and count. You need to be able to solve simple puzzles, draw conclusions after reading short texts. Sometimes even need to argue with the teacher and to prove his innocence. Perhaps someone will be surprised, but such tasks are used in many modern curriculum.
If you want your child to be truly ready for school, start to develop his critical thinking as early as possible.
Here are some tips that will help to develop critical thinking in children:
In his statements must be logic. From an early age you need to teach your child to think logically. Try more often to reason with the child, obosnovyvaet my opinion, teach the child to construct sentences according to the model: “If. then. “.
Teach your baby to develop thinking in different ways and in a playful way.
Let him compare objects, finds the similarities, makes conclusions after reading fairy tales.
Do not take the answer: “Because I want to” or “Because I like it”, if we are talking about arguments opinions about anything. Ask your child to think and to name the real cause. Of course, you don’t want the baby soon to sound arguments. First let him learn how to think over it. Help him by asking leading questions.
Allow the child to doubt. Your child is in some doubt, expresses distrust to some facts — well! So he will try to prove that he was right. So, want to know everything about the object of the dispute. Learns and remembers a lot of new and interesting.
Your child indicates a bug in your reasoning? Or asking clarifying questions? It’s wonderful. So he’s attentive, willing to Express their opinion and wants to know everything. Encourage such conversations.
Try to accustom the child to first find out all the information and then draw conclusions. Show that it is unwise to criticize what you know nothing, you should always try to judge objectively.