The Development of cognitive activity
The question of development of cognitive activity was addressed by many researchers and practitioners. But here came my turn to delve into the study of this problem. And therefore your attention I would like to present the experience of implementation in the educational and developmental activities of the Department in such form of cognitive activity of preschool children, interactive tour.
It seems appropriate to begin our narrative with some theoretical aspects, on which I relied when designing tour programs and which, in principle, and prompted the choice of this form of sightseeing.
In the first place. What is cognitive activity? Under cognitive activity of preschool children should understand the activity, manifested in the learning process. It is expressed in passionate about making information, in an independent search for answers to the questions, in the manifestation of creativity. Also an important characteristic of cognitive activity is the ability to assimilate the ways of knowing and to use the obtained knowledge in the future.
Secondly, the problem of development of cognitive activity of preschool children is one of the most relevant in child psychology, because the human interaction with the environment is possible due to its activities, and also because the activity is an indispensable prerequisite for the development of mental qualities, autonomy, and initiative.
Thirdly, cognitive activity develops out of a need for new impressions, which is inherent in every person from birth. At preschool age on the basis of this need, in the development process approximately research activities, the child develops a desire to learn and discover new knowledge.
A special role in this belongs to adults (parents, teachers, etc.) that during the observations, games and training sessions to motivate the child to a meaningful implementation of the actions of independent research; develop the ability to ask, to argue, to refute, to defend his point of view; influence children’s initiative, creative and cognitive activity.
Interactive tour in the Anichkov Palace
And, just announced, came up with the idea and not think anything of such things in the staterooms Anichkov Palace? Because kraevedcheski material of the Palace is so rich that living by themselves, are strong motivating factor in the development of cognitive activity of the child. And if you weave in the historical context of a fantasy element, then we can get a new story.
Thus was born the character of Mr. Wu, the Ghost that in ancient times, flew to the Palace when it was empty. The gentleman is absolutely not a standard Ghost, the thing is that is not like him to frighten anyone. He loves children, they call him Mr. Y, because seeing the kids he said “chummy, chummy, what a baby.” But he became a good friend to the Palace. And therefore it is only the most friendly, kind and well-behaved children. Thus, during the tour are solved and educational objectives, because children need to perform tasks in a team, helping each other. At the same time laid the foundations of Museum ethics – respect for the objects exhibited in the Museum.
But now it’s time to talk about the excursion program. The fact that its success depends on whether the job age features of the child. How fully are considered unique to this age especially, so harmoniously, productively and efficiently occurs and the development of cognitive activity.
First, the perception at this level of mental development is associated with the practical activity of the child. Sensing object for the child – it means something to do with it, change something in it, to produce any action, to take, to touch him. Secondly, the mental activity of children is usually colored by emotions. Everything that children see what they think, what they do, gives them the emotionally charged relationship. The third feature of the preschool period of childhood is the weakness of voluntary attention. Voluntary attention preschoolers requires a so-called close motivation. They can’t force myself to focus on uninteresting and hard work for the result. However, significantly better in younger Teens developed involuntary attention. Everything is new, unexpected, vivid, interesting by itself attracts the attention of students, without any effort on their part. Finally, at preschool age, learning is much more successful in the game than in formal training sessions. In the situation of the game the child understood the basic need for acquisition of new knowledge, communication and action.
So our tour has achieved the nature of interactivity. Interactive tour is a sightseeing program that entails the active involvement of tourists in the event, the interaction between all participants in a modern Museum space. And in our case the Museum turns into a total gaming space.
Already in the first minutes of the tour, the children suddenly find a letter from Mr. W. From the letter children learn that a Ghost for a long time watching them and almost ready to meet you guys! But still wants them to experience. And therefore in every living room would be waiting for them the job. Children armed with flashlights. plied with sweets and go on a journey through the dark Seating. Children constantly feel the invisible presence of Ghosts, because with the right execution of a job in a dark living room suddenly lights up. This Gentleman Had somehow turns it on. In each of the living children experience new activities and activity. Excursion replete with a lot of playing techniques: the riddles, shadow theater (a favorite parlor game for children’s balls in tsarist times), learning ballroom dance, study space with the help of flashlights. The program was escorted lighting effects, animated navigation, and, of course, a costumed Ghost.
Thus, creating an enriched object-spatial environment, including elements of entertainment in the event, involve children in the implementation of creative tasks, integrating a variety of activities, giving the game situation problem and search character we ensure the formation and maintenance of cognitive interests of the child.
But, all tasks completed, all tests are passed. What’s next. Don’t forget that we surround the child in the tale, in which the child believes unconditionally. So after passing all the tests, the boys find the same Lord Near, lurking in the secret room of the library of the Anichkov Palace (tell you a secret, it’s our teacher in acting, who also took part in the creation of the program). But this journey does not end by Seating. The gentleman introduces the children already with his old friends: a Girl with a shawl, a boy with a duck, frogs, etc. So a static sculpture comes to life for children, become real characters with their own history and destiny. But there comes a time to say goodbye: a Ghost flies away to his Secret room, children, purchasing new friend, go home, and teachers are rushing to fill the diagnostic card and sum the results. Won’t bore you with statistics, would only say that among children and parents we have not had any negative feedback. And the popularity of this program demonstrates how interactive forms of excursions are favorable for the development of cognitive activity of the child.
Gigolo Svetlana Stanislavovna